- 诊断 diagnosis: 简化问题，识别挑战
- 指导原则 guiding policies：如何应对挑战？
- 连贯的行动 coherent actions：一系列在原则指导下，互相帮助形成合力的行动
In business, the challenge is usually dealing with change and competition.
- diagnosing the specific structure of the challenge rather than simply naming performance goals.
- choosing an overall guiding policy for dealing with the situation that builds on or creates some type of leverage or advantage.
- design of a configuration of actions and resource allocations that implement the chosen guiding policy.
In many large organizations, the challenge is often diagnosed as internal.
- organization’s competitive problems may be much lighter than the obstacles imposed by its own outdated routines, bureaucracy, pools of entrenched interests, lack of cooperation across units, and plain-old bad management.
- reorganization and renewal.
- changes in people, power, and procedures.